5월에는 World Bank Group(세계은행)에서의 일과 삶에 대해 이야기해볼까 합니다!
World Bank Group의 컨설턴트로 근무를 하셨고, 현재는 대한상공회의소 지속가능경영원에서 연구원으로 재직 중인 여원석 멘토님과의 만남! (훈남이시죠?)
아마 지난 2012년에 한국계 김용 총재님이 취임하신 덕분에 다들 세계은행에 대해 한 번쯤은 들어보셨을텐데요, ‘국제부흥개발은행(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD)'이라는 또 다른 명칭에서 알 수 있듯 세계은행은 1946년, 세계대전 후 전쟁의 잔해를 복구하고 각국의 경제부흥 및 개발을 촉진하기 위한 목적으로 설립된 기관입니다. 현재에는 주로 개발도상국의 개발을 위한 자금을 주로 지원하고 있으며, 세계 경제 및 개별 국가에 필요한 정책 자문 등의 역할도 담당하고 있습니다.
대한민국은 1955년 가입 이후 꾸준히 역할을 확대하여 오늘날에는 전체 188개 가입국 중 22위 규모의 출자금 및 그에 해당하는 만큼의 영향력(표결권)을 갖게 되었다고 하는데요-
앞으로 우리나라가 성장하고 발전함에 따라 점차 대한민국의 역할과 영향력이 확대될 세계은행에서 내가 잘 할 수 있는 일이 무엇일지, 어떻게 하면 그 일을 할 수 있을지, 궁금하지 않으신가요?
꼭 세계은행이 아니더라도, 전 세계 경제의 건강하고 지속가능한 발전을 위해 내가 하고 싶은 일을 찾아보고 싶거나, 혹은, 국제기구에서 내 꿈을 더 크게 키워나갈 방법이 궁금하지는 않으신가요?
그런 여러분을 위해 여원석 멘토님께서 이번 강연을 통해 꼭 전달하고 싶은 이야기가 있다고 하시는데요,
첫째, 세계은행이 어떻게 전 세계의 빈곤문제 해결과 지속가능한발전을 위해 일하고 있는지,
둘째, 국제기구의 일원으로 사는 삶은 어떠한지,
셋째, 나와 그런 일들이 적합할지, 그렇다면 어떤 준비가 필요할지,
친절하고 또 최대한 진솔하게 말씀해주시면서, 여러분과의 시간을 만들어가고 싶다고 하십니다!
(얼굴만 훈남이신 줄 알았는데, 함께 해주고 싶으시다는 그 마음, 열정까지도 훈훈합니다^^)
그리고 이제는 더 말씀드리지 않아도 동네방네 소문이 났을, “UNGO 진로 여행의 밤”의 강점!
바로, 멘토님이 해주시는 강연 시간(약 1시간)에 맞먹을 만큼의 질의 응답 및 멘토링 세션입니다 :)
아주 소소한 질문부터 거창하고 원대한 포부까지-
마음을 열고 멘토님 및 참가자들과 이런 저런 이야기를 나누면서 비슷한 고민을 안고 있는 서로를 위해 소중한 시간을 함께 만들어나갈 여러분 모두에게 UNGO 진로 여행의 밤은 늘 열려있습니다!
There are various factors and hypothesis that claim what changes our climate. The most certain and influential factor is the pollution by human activities. Thus, emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO2) make the planet to become warmer. Global warming increases the sea level and melted icebergs not only change the salinity of seawater but also make currents unpredictable. Extreme climates make our lives more unstable, more frequently. Among MDGs (Millennium Development Goals), the seventh goal focuses on hygiene and living condition of the poor society, but it is now losing its direction towards systematic reformation in the means of industrial system. With only four years left before the deadline, 2015, talks between nations about sustainable development is receiving lots of attention while not making much progress.
In front of the United Nations
Maldives and Tuvalu gave up their sovereignty, and rising sea level presses the people to be submerged in the middle of an endless ocean. While time is ticking off, no government has been able to come up with a practical, measurable solution. MUNCCC (Model United Nations Climate Change Conference) seeks bright youths to solve it for the adults who are confined to economic benefits and worried about its losses.
Before the debate, each delegate wrote their Position Paper, a short essay stating their nations’ goals to achieve throughout the meeting. Here is a part of mine:
“Germany would like to achieve two things in this climate change conference: 1. Setting framework policy that reinforces both economic growth and conservation of nature capital. 2. Coming up with measures to provide incentives to use natural resources efficiently and making pollution more expensive. Both idea stress that environment should no longer be free. Germany finds the most basic reason why nations have been free to abuse nature capital without hesitance in that it is nobody’s responsibility to restore what one has taken. However, while number one requires international and long term compromises, the latter calls for the measures for the time being, before the green economic structure completely stabilizes in societies.” (Tip: In all sessions, in writing or during the debate, everyone including yourselves must be recognized as a third person pronouns.)
Every participant represents a nation in a committee as a delegate. Each committee has its own agendas, and mine was ‘OECD and Green Growth’. Only OECD member nations were open to the debate, so there should be a different focus compared to a session in the General Assembly. It is important to grasp which countries with certain economic and social capacity is participating in the debate. Whereas OECD members can more easily afford money costing projects, not all members in GA are capable. Also, there are always main countries in the center leading the debate, ones highly involved in the agenda. It is important and inevitable to form power structures around those delegates. Also, always take notes, because almost all the speeches made during the conference are impromptu; delegates take notes while they listen to the others, and at the same time how to refer to it. But above all, do not get too emotional, or you might personally hurt the other delegate.
In the debate session, delegates from US, ROK, Spain have expressed their recent concerns over their fiscal difficulty compared to Switzerland, Germany or UK. But a decision paper written by Switzerland and UK merely suggested already comparably eco-friendly nations to take part in green technology share without the mention of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights). In vice versa, there were no incentives for the technology/ fiscal aid donor nations. The entire decision paper was appeasing to environmentally developed nations for their benevolence. Since decision papers are not mandatory or legally binding, the paper was merely a justification to deny their window dressing. In the mean while, highly developing nations (ROK, Mexico and Brazil) were helplessly waiting for developed nations’ aid. This was not going to work. The paper did not encourage any of the developing nations to voluntarily strive harder to achieve the knowledge of green management, nor for developed nations, pass on to other nations to make this world greener.
With Spain, ROK, US and Ireland, we introduced BAMP(Bilateral Appropriate Mitigation Program / 양국간적절완화프로그램). This is a practical form of NAMA (Nationally Appropriate Mitigaton Action), which the president of ROK has brought attention to in 2009 COP (Conference of Parities) in Copenhagen. Developing nations would have to pay small payment to developed nations in exchange for the green technological support, thereby establishing a world sized immense partnership. If the developing nations have failed to achieve the CO2 emission percentage, they had to pay interest to the developed nations; the rate was left to be determined according to their fiscal situation. World Bank will be participating as a mediator. This idea gained the support from the majority and refined the paper in a more practical manner.
Members and student officers of Committee 8, 'OECD and Green Growth'
MUNCCC 2011 was held by YTN in Korea University with cooperation of British Embassy. Prize winners were later invited to a reception in the British Embassy in Seoul, and had a luncheon. Smaller number of people among them will be lucky enough to participate in COP 17, South Africa as observers. For those of you students wishing to be a diplomat one day, this experience is indispensible and priceless. Become a face of one country for a few days! This experience has motivated many youth including me to find their passion, career, dream and potential. Do you want to feel the goose bumps? Dive in one of the Model United Nations and voice your opinion.
I could not understand why people in Africa laid tens of children when they could not raise them all healthily. Neither could I comprehend why an enormous continent, Africa, with so much resource left underground, they would not dig them up and make use of them. But as it turns out, we were lucky that we were not born in Africa. Most chances are that we too would be suffering from extreme poverty and malnourished if we were simply out of luck. Just as we are protected, since birth, under a relatively stable environment, African children did not choose their destiny either.
‘Phew, that was close..’ Sure. We successfully made a narrow escape from not being born in Africa. But this is not an attitude to be encouraged. We cannot put off solving the seemingly endless chain of poverty forever. As a same human being with a sense of compassion, we feel sorry to hear their everyday lives. We will never experience that pain but 2 billion populations is covering their stomach, not in hunger but knife sticking pain.
There was a lecture by Song Shin Hye (The Korean Committee for UNICEF, Manager of Education Development Division) in MIZY center (Seoul Youth Center for Cultural Exchange) in July 20th, with the topic of ‘MDGs, for A World Where Every Child is Happy’. The lecture was originally for the Youth Reporters of MIZY, but it became open for anyone who is interested in child well-being and MDGs.
Song Shin Hye, Manager of Education Development Division, The Korean Committee for UNICEF
alks about how UN can be compared to a galaxy.
I was surprised to hear there were so many close relations between MDGs and children. MDGs are Millennium Development Goals, approved by UN in 2000, Summit Meeting. It has designated 8 conundrums to be solved upon decided percentage by 2015. (See below for more information) She declared very shocking statistics from the beginning of the speech, that 50 percent of the social class to be protected by MDGs is children, by definition, people of five to eighteen years old. They are vulnerable; immune system is to be developed by thorough nourishment. Yet, overwhelming number of children in South-West Africa, for instance, is heavily dependent on infrequent, unsustainable foreign medical aids. They are so depended on those aids that the number fluctuates according to the foreign aid given.
MDG declares: ‘As leaders we have a duty therefore to the entire world’s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs. ’ However this promise is not being kept very well. The average life expectancy for people in Zimbabwe is 36. A third of children are dying of malnutrition. Pneumonia derives from simple cold. Many African children suffer from diarrhea because they drank filthy water. Malaria is easily overcome than common mosquitoes’ bites but they are known to be deadly because people in Africa have weak immune system to fight against malaria.
UNICEF is facing several responsibilities: First they must increase maternal health (MDG Goal 5: Maternal Health). When mothers are healthy, entire household becomes healthy (MDG Goal 4: Child Health). Children do not have to work instead of their parents but go to school. This is how universal education comes true (MDG Goal 2: Universal Education). People become more intellectual, and develop their insights towards the world through education. This leads to eradication of extreme poverty and hunger (MDG Goal 1: End Poverty and Hunger) in the long run, because educated people are more likely to have better jobs than simple labor or going through trash. Someday, female version of Nelson Mandela will be leading Africa. At this moment, women are less educated compared to male, but through ‘universal’ education, more women will fight for gender equality and empower women (MDG Goal 3: Gender Equality). Ultimately, national strength and sovereignty will come to stand firm, and their governments will focus on basic sanitation as their life quality increases. HIV/AIDS and other diseases will be eradicated (MDG Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS) by increased sanity.
UNICEF(United Nation Children's Fund)
There is a time limit to MDG goals. Until 2015, all the goals should be met. However it seems to me it would be very hard in any goal to reach the expected level. Nevertheless, I think we should keep going like we used to. It doesn’t mean the world will end in 2015, the time will pass but people stay the same. The time limit exists to give pressure and prevent from nations saving the issue for later but encourage instantly putting action to it. Whenever we believe it is already late, it is the earliest it can get.
Now: how can you contribute to UNICEF and to the world’s being?
You can send gifts or monthly donations. 1,000 won a day can save a dying child. In your pencil case, you are carrying lives of 10 children. What would you do? It is in your hands.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day
- Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People
- Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
- By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women - Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates - Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
-Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio -Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
-Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS -Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it -Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources
- Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
- Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply)
- By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
-Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
-Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC)
-Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island
-Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
-In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries
-In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
Song Min Kyu tells us about his experience as a youth representative of South Korea in the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
Among teenagers who dream of becoming global leaders, majority wish to work in the United Nations (UN). After Ban Ki Moon became the Secretary General in UN, Korean teenagers’ interests on the UN and world peace has increased. Song Min Kyua student at Korean Foreign Language University, has been able to experience UN before many others have.
The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family has announced for the dispatch of the Korean youth representative at the Forty-Ninth session of the UN Commission for Social Development in February, 2011. Having gone through competitive applications and interviews, Song Min Kyu earned the fortune of becoming the representative of South Korea in UN headquarters. He spoke about his special experience he had in New York.
Q: Could you introduce yourself? (Name, age, school, interest, etc.)
A: Hello. My name is Song Min Kyu. I am currently attending Korean Foreign Language University as a business major. I am 22 years old now.
Q: How did you get to apply for the UN dispatch?
A: About a year ago, I had an opportunity to know a website called ‘Nation Council of Youth Organizations in Korea’ (www.ncyok.or.kr) through a person I knew. I didn’t get to go on it very often but I tried to go on the website whenever I had free time. Then one day I was able to reach the news that the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family was looking for a youth representative for the UN Commission for Social Development. Since I always had passion and interest for this area, I decided to apply for this opportunity.
Q: Can you tell us about the interview you had before you were selected as a representative?
A: During the interview I was asked many questions. First, they asked me why I wanted to go to the UN. For me, I started having interest in the UN during my high school years. Through this opportunity, I said that rather than listening about what the UN is, I wanted to actually experience it.
Q: Many people are very curious about the process of preparation for the UN dispatch. What kind of trainings did you go through at the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family? Also what was your special effort to be the chosen representative?
A: Rather than saying that I had a special effort, I think that my interest in the UN field since my high school years has helped me get selected as a representative. Also I think telling myself that I want to experience the UN and always searching information about the UN helped me. At the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family I was able to learn about the Korean teenagers’ policies. In a short time, I learnedmany laws and policies that Korea has set and has enforced. On the terms of policies relating to youth, I was able to know that even when compared with other developed countries, ours are not behind.
Q: Can you tell us about the UN dispatch? Where was it held? Please tell us about the process, people you met, New York and anything else that you have felt from this experience.
A: When I first arrived in New York as the representative I was very anticipated to go inside the UN headquarters. However, the UN headquarters was in construction. Instead, we got to work in the temporary headquarters. I was very nervous that I will be with the representatives from the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. However when I actually started to be with these people, I became very close with them and I had a lot of fun.
The general meeting was held twice a day from 10 a.m. to 1p.m. and then from 3 to 6 p.m., from Wednesday to Monday. Also in the between times, from 1:15 to 2:30 p.m., each youth representative gathered to discuss about the youth related policies. This meeting was progressed by discussing about the passages that need to be amended. Also each representatives added comments about each one’s opinion.
The special experience was that there were about 20 youth representatives and I was the only one that made a speech as a youth representative. I was curious whether it was alright to make a speech with representative from so many nations in front of me. However, I think the speech ended well. Even the chairperson commented that it was very creative. At the time, because I was so nervous, I had a mixed feeling of happiness and confusion. When I first arrived there as a youth representative, the consular introduced the people from the ‘World Youth’. The consular explained what this group does. The World Youth is a nonprofit volunteer organization which offers people over the age of 18 to volunteer in developing areas. I was surprised that most of them were around the same age as me. At first it was very awkward to be with people that I was not familiar with, but later I was able to see them couple of more times and talked with them about what needs to be done for the youth.
Q: What is your final goal or dream? Also were you able to get closer to your dream through this dispatch experience?
A: My final dream is to go in the UN Commission for Social Development that I have been dreaming since high school. In the commission, I want to discuss social issues that developing countries are dealing with. Many people in Korea say that numerous developing countries have set Korea’s development as their role model. This is somewhat true, but I think they should include countries that failed as their model also. Instead of saying “To solve thesesocial issues, your country should do this!”, I want to help each country figure out their issues by concentrating on their culture and society.
Q: What is a ‘global leader’ to you?
A:Everyone has different meaning of a ‘global leader’. For me, I think that a global leader is a person that can help others when others need help, rather than a person that everyone knows and looks upon.
You can be the next new global leader!
The dispatch for the youth representative is all around the world. The youth representatives come from countries starting from Australia, Austria, Germany, Norway, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Tunisia and etc. When you participate in the dispatch as a youth representative in the UN for the next session, youth representatives write the Reports of the Secretary General on Youth together. This document provides background for the Resolution on policies and programmes on youth at the General Assembly. Along with presenting in formal meetings, they also participate in the informal consultations where negotiations of the Resolution take place. Here are the three different meetings youth representatives (delegates) can participate in:
General Assembly (GA)
The General Assembly deliberates on social, cultural and humanitarian issues. The matter relating with youth falls under the agenda item, “Social development, including questions relating to the world social situation and to youth, ageing, persons with disabilities and the family”.The GA is held usually in October.
The Commission for Social Development (CSocD)
The Commission for Social Development deals with social development issues such as poverty, employment, youth and etc. When participating in the GA, the delegate is most likely to also participate in the CSocD. The CSocD is held in February.
The Commission on Sustainable Development. (CDS)
The Commission on Sustainable Development reviews the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development. Youth delegates can participate as their country’s official delegation or by representing an NGO for Children and Youth. The CDS is held annually in the month of March.
If interested in the dispatch for the youth representative for your country, keep updated by checking http://english.mogef.go.kr , and http://www.un.org/youth for official announcements. The announcements for the dispatch in 2010 were announced on June 30th and December 31st.